The proposed research project focuses on the investigation of novel pain markers in sheep, particularly in relation to surgical husbandry procedures such as ear tagging, ear notching, tail docking, castration and mulesing. This project aims to increase the current knowledge on markers of pain in livestock, and hence improve animal welfare. The findings from this study may contribute to the way pain is assessed in livestock in the future. The knowledge to be acquired through this research has the potential to influence current practices regarding surgical procedures and other painful conditions and hence improve animal welfare standards within the wool industry. With a better understanding of pain in sheep, improved methods to alleviate pain may be identified. This project will provide new information which will be extremely valuable for improving sheep welfare and therefore strengthening the sustainability of the wool industry.