TECH-200 Early Stage Processing
Wool Technology links production and metrology to processing. An overview of processing systems, Worsted and Woollen, is presented. The early stage processing of wool and the spinning process to yarn are covered in much detail with the principles, processes and machinery explained and examined. The utilisation of wool fibre in the world-wide textile industry is presented, including the development of new products, and other textile fibres that compete with wool are described. Fibre properties and their impact on processing and final products are also covered.
It is important to consider wool as a fibre, both in the context of processing and its various uses. The important properties of wool fibres are described in relation to other fibres in the global apparel market. Australian wools are processed on either of two wool processing systems, worsted or woollen. These systems are compared and the processes involved in the woollen system of manufacture are explained in more detail. Worsted processing, its principles and processes are dealt with in much greater detail in the “Early Stage Processing” theme.

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TECH-200-050 Blending
The utilisation of wool fibre in the world-wide textile industry is presented here. The impetus for the use of the wool fibre as opposed to other textile fibres is explained. A table addressing the advantages and disadvantages of the wool fibre in relation to other fibres is contained.
TECH-200-050-100 Blending fibres
This module examines the technology used to blend fibre throughout the processing pipeline. The rationale for blending is explained, and some of the latest blended wool products are featured. The processes of pre-scour blending and blending before spinning are explained.
TECH-200-100 Scouring
The science of scouring and the fundamental processes and systems involved are the focus of this topic. Fibre entanglement in scouring is addressed and treatment of scouring effluent described. The concepts behind the SIROSCOUR scouring technology are also examined.
TECH-200-100-100 An Introduction to Scouring
In this module the aims of the science of scouring are elucidated, as well as the problems which may occur during an uncontrolled scouring operation. The types of contaminants present during scouring are discussed, and the problems the presence of residual contaminants may cause are explained. The sequence of events leading to contaminant removal is also discussed, but this is further expanded in the module “Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Scouring”.
TECH-200-100-200 Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Scouring: Detergency, Felting
This module examines two processes that are fundamental to aqueous scouring, detergency and felting.
TECH-200-100-300 Scouring Systems
This module is a general overview of scouring systems. It examines the general features of scouring systems, and gives examples of a number of ways these features are embodied in modern scours. The variables available to the modern scourer are also discussed in some detail.
TECH-200-100-400 Fibre Entanglement in Scouring
Fibre entanglement leads to a loss in fibre length, an increase in combing noil and a decrease in the clarity of the card web due to nep formation. This module explores the concept of “working points” in a scour to explain where fibre entanglement may occur in an aqueous scour. Solutions to the problem of entanglement and its reduction are reviewed.
TECH-200-100-500 Siroscour Technology
This module examines the concepts behind SIROSCOUR scouring technology which has been developed by CSIRO Textile & Fibre Technology (formerly Division of Wool Technology).To date eight commercial Siroscour plants have now been sold, two of which are operating in Australia, three are operating in China and three are in the US. This represents about 65% of the wool scour market worldwide. The licensee for Siroscour is Annett & Darling (ANDAR) (NZ).
TECH-200-100-600 Effluent treatment
This module examines the problems caused by scouring effluents. It goes on to describe solutions developed by CSIRO Division of Textile & Fibre Technology, formerly Wool Technology.
TECH-200-150 Carding
The principles of carding are introduced and the basic actions involved in the carding process explained. The features of the worsted card are described in some detail and the processes involved in vegetable matter (VM) removal, fibre breakage during carding and high speed carding are examined.
TECH-200-150-100 Carding Principles
This module introduces the basic fibre-pin interactions which occur during carding. An understanding of these actions is essential in understanding carding.
TECH-200-150-200 Card Types
This module introduces the various types of cards used in fibre processing. Long staple card are of most interest, but hand carding and short staple carding are also featured.
TECH-200-150-300 Worsted Card Features
This module examines the features of a worsted card in more detail. This detail includes features such as card variables, card clothing, mechanisms for VM removal, the measurement of card production and card performance and the principle of doffing. It is recommended that the “Carding Principles” and “Card Types” modules be viewed before this module.
TECH-200-150-400 Fibre/Pin Interaction in Carding
This module examines the possibilities for fibre / pin interaction through a typical carding set consisting of a cylinder (or swift), a worker and a stripper. The three basic carding actions are decided by the direction of the pins and the relative motion of the rollers. For more information see the “Carding Principles” module. It should be noted that the final fibre movement is also dependent on such things as: fibre configuration (i.e. the fibre may be straight or hooked), fibre location (i.e. the fibre may be sitting down in the pins), fibre properties such as length, pin density and condition, relative roller speeds and clearances between rollers. This module shows how fibres move and how the fibre configuration can be altered by the carding unit.
TECH-200-150-500 VM Removal in Carding
This module examines how the moisture content of carded wool can affect the make-up of VM in the card sliver. An optimum regain is found for scoured wool, as determined by the number of particles permissible in the top as specified by the top specifications.
TECH-200-150-600 Fibre Breakage in Carding
This module examines the cost benefit of less fibre breakage during carding. The module also looks at the locations for fibre breakage in the card. The effect of lubrication during carding is examined, as well as the effect of the moisture content of the fibres on fibre breakage.
TECH-200-150-700 High Speed Carding
This module examines how the productivity of worsted carding has been significantly improved by increasing the speed of carding. The usual measure of carding speed is the speed of the main cylinder or swift. Other card components are usually locked in set speed ratios.
TECH-200-200 Drafting & Gilling of Fibre Assemblies
Modules in this topic address the principles of drafting of fibre assemblies. Fibre assemblies are defined and the significance of fibre assembly evenness is explained. The features and functions of the gillbox are described and the process of gilling examined.
TECH-200-200-100 Fibre Assemblies: Slivers, Rovings, Yarns
This module defines fibre assemblies and examines which fibre distribution is the most desirable in any fibre assembly of staple fibres.
TECH-200-200-200 Drafting Principles
This module introduces the concept of the drafting of fibre assemblies. The principles in this module can be applied to the roller drafting of slivers and rovings comprising discrete staple fibres. It is recommended that this module is used in conjunction with the modules “Fibre Assemblies” and “Evenness”.
TECH-200-200-300 Evenness
Evenness or low irregularity is vitally important in both the processing and subsequent usage of fibre assemblies like slivers and yarns. This module examines the significance of evenness and how it is measured. It is recommended that the modules “Fibre Assemblies” and “Drafting Principles” are viewed in conjunction with this module.
TECH-200-200-400 Gilling
This module looks at Gilling as a process, explaining the features and functions of a gillbox. The module also examines the separate but similar processes of Preparation Gilling, which prepares card slivers for combing, and Finisher Gilling, which is carried out on the combed sliver to form a worsted top. It is recommended that the modules “Drafting” and “Evenness” are viewed before this module
TECH-200-300 Combing
The concept of combing is introduced, along with some of its history and the sections of the French comb and their part in the combing sequence are described. A detailed explanation of pin densities, front comb operation and vegetable matter (VM) retention are included. For more illustrations of some of these principles see the module “Combing: Latest Developments & Future Trends” in the topic “Latest Developments in Worsted Processing”.
TECH-200-300-100 Combing Principles
This module introduces the concept of combing, gives some of its history, and allows a perspective of where combing sits in the worsted process. The module will concentrate on the French comb and describe its sections and their part in the combing sequence. It is recommended that the reader has an understanding of gilling and fibre assemblies (esp. slivers) before using this module.
TECH-200-300-200 Combing Advanced Aspects
This module will give more detailed explanations of specific parts of the combing operation than that found in the ‘Combing Principle’ module. The specific sections covered are pin densities, front comb operation and VM retention, comb production rate and sliver crimping. Some illustrations of these principles will be covered in the ‘Combing: Latest Developments & Future Trends’ module. Users are urged to review the modules on ‘Gilling’ and ‘Combing Principles’ before using this module.
TECH-200-400 Spinning
The multi-stage process of woollen and worsted yarn production and the important principle of twist is examined.
TECH-200-400-100 Yarn Twist
This module explains the important principle of twist. Twist characterises yarns, and aspects such as twist level, twist angle, twist factor, and twist levelling (drafting) are explained. Twist is also applied to slubbings and rovings before spinning, but usually as false twist.
TECH-200-400-200 Yarn Production
This module examines the multi-stage process of woollen and worsted yarn production. Separate processes such as drawing, roving formation, spinning and folding combine to produce a plied yarn. It is recommended that the module, “”Yarn Twist”” is viewed before this module. The modules on “Doubling and Drafting” and “Evenness” are also recommended reading.
TECH-200-500 Latest Developments in Worsted Processing
The latest developments in combing, spinning and prediction of spinning performance and yarn quality are outlined.
TECH-200-500-100 Combing: Latest Developments & Future Trends
This module will inform you of the developments in combing that have taken place over the last 15 years or so. In the context of Wool Science this discussion is limited to the developments in worsted combing. The module will also give an insight into the expected future trends in combing. Users are urged to review the modules on ‘Gilling’ and ‘Combing Principles’ before using this module.
TECH-200-500-200 Latest Developments in Spinning
This module examines the needs of spinners’ customers to the consumer level, how these needs can be met by changing top specifications, and by developments in spinning.
TECH-200-500-300 Prediction of Spinning Performance & Yarn Quality
This module examines how spinning performance and yarn quality can be predicted from fibre properties.
TECH-200-600 Fibre Effects
Modules in this topic summarise the influence and effects that wool fibre properties have on early stage processing parameters. Fibre effects in ring spinning is examined in more detail.
TECH-200-600-100 Fibre Effects in Processing
This module is a summary of the influence and effects that wool fibre properties have on early stage processing performance and parameters. More detailed information may be available in the relevant modules for each processing stage.
TECH-200-600-200 Fibre Effects in Spinning
This module examines the relative importance of fibre properties on ring spinning performance and yarn properties.
TECH-200-700 Industrial Environment & Practice
Possible scenarios which may take place in the industrial mill environment are dealt with. Machine configurations and variables within a topmaking mill are examined. A review module consisting of questions and answers about the most efficient way to process two consignments is included. The answers are taken from different points of view and are designed so that the reader may re-enforce their understanding of raw wool properties and early stage processing.
TECH-200-700-050 Topmaking: Mill Configuration & Variables
This module looks at the possible configuration of a top-making mill. It also looks at the variables in a top-making operation.
TECH-200-700-100 Consignment Processing Example
This module consists of questions and answers about the most efficient way to process two (2) consignments which have different raw wool characteristics. The answers taken from different view points will allow the reader to re-enforce their understanding of the relationships between raw wool properties of consignments and early stage processing parameters. It is envisaged that the reader will have already read the various early stage processing modules. This information was forthcoming from active industry participants in 1996.